The Lunning Prize
published by the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
English translation by Olivia Cole Collin, Patrick Hort, Henrik Jul-Hansen
Elizabeth Seeberg, and the English Center, Helsinki
For twenty years, between 1951 and 1971, the Lunning Prize was considered the "Nobel Prize" of Scandinavian Design, and was awarded every year to two young designers whom showed the most promise in the decorative arts. Meant to promote the arts and to give these young designers a chance to gain more worldly experience (and recognition), and over its time, awarded today's equivalent of over half a million dollars, which was to be used to fund expeditions where the winners would be able to study and be inspired by the decorative arts in the countries they visited.
Frederik Lunning had originally set up shop in New York in the early 1920's as the only shop selling Georg Jensen in the United States, at a time when no one else thought that the American public would have any interest in Danish design. Taking a huge risk, he set up shop on 53rd Street, and quickly met with success. It wasn't very long until until he moved to Fifth Avenue, and expanded his shop. Afterwards, he started selling Royal Copenhagen, and many other Scandinavian pieces.
World War II came and quickly put a stop to the imports from Denmark, and other Scandinavian countries, due to occupation and the need for metals and other raw materials for the war efforts. Due to this lack of goods perhaps, Lunning's shop soon started carrying goods from the United States, and after the war, efforts were made to regain the focus on Scandinavian design that it once possessed in prior years.
Much collaboration between the Nordic nations had existed during the 40's, as the concept of Scandinavian design started to recover from the war. Many companies, like Georg Jensen whom survived the war and during shortages of silver started working with iron and steel, could once again start to grow and expand again. In 1946, the first Nordic Art Industry Conference was hosted by Denmark, it's main theme being the housing situation. Three more conferences were to be held, The nest in 1948 in Oslo, Norway, to discuss design training, and two years later in Sweden on the Art Industry market, and the final in Helsinki, Finland, featuring Alvar Aalto's lecture on standardization in 1954.
The Nordic countries weren't just strengthening their bonds during this time, but also started exhibiting in the United States, as with the Scandinavia at Table exhibit, featuring place settings, flatware, and the like from many prominent design firms. Over a course of three years, and visiting 17 states and 3 Canadian Provinces, with 658,264 attendees, the exhibit was quite a success, and an achievement for Erik Herlow, whom, as architect for the exhibition, found many elegant solutions for the transport and construction of the traveling displays.
It was during this period that the Lunning Prize was initiated. With the intention of drawing attention to Georg Jensen and other Scandinavian companies, as well as creating good will amongst the design community and to aid young designers in their craft, the Lunning prize was established and on December 21st, 1951, the 70th birthday of Mr. Fredrick Lunning, the first award was given. Two artists, chosen by a committee of eight members, two from each of the participating countries, (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland), one of whom was appointed by the Georg Jensen Silversmithy, (of whom Frederick Lunning and later his son, Just Lunning headed), and the other by the national society for the arts and design from the representative country, (though, for the first six years, only the members elected by Georg Jensen could vote, though this was changed in 1957). The award was designated "to support talented and original Nordic craftsmen and industrial designers - preferably young persons - for whom a carefully planned and lengthy period of study abroad stands to be of great or decisive importance for their artistic development and practical performance." Though the Lunning Prize itself might have been short lived, it's not hard to see how the travels funded by the prize left long lasting impressions upon the winners, and in turn, how much impact the winners themselves have left upon the world of design.
Hans J. Wegner
Hans J. Wegner was born in 1914 and by 1931 finished his apprenticeship as a joiner before attending the Technological Institute in Copenhagen as a joiner in 1936. He then studied at the School of Art, Crafts and Design in 1938 before coming a furniture designer primarily for Johannes Hansens Mobelsnedkeri A/S. He also worked for a number of design firms, including Arne Jacobsen between 1938 and 1942. He later became a teacher at the School of Arts, Crafts and Design in 1946 and then beceoming a lecturer in 1953. Among the other awards he won were the Grand Prix in 1951, the gold medal and Diplome d'Honneur in 1954, and the silver medal in 1957 for the Milan Triennial.
Hans J. Wegner was awarded the Lunning Prize in 1951 for his amazing achievements in renewing the traditional styles of Danish furniture. His ability to understand wood and bring out its greatest possibilities. Working with cane and paper seats and graceful curves in wood, with a restrained design, he created many beautiful chairs and other pieces of furniture. His later works often had their roots in previous works, his Peacock Chair harkening to the traditional Windsor chair for example, however his designs were incredibly innovative. His Valet chair doubled as a rack to hang a gentleman's suit, and his folding chair in 1949 easily hung against a wall. Incredibly enough, it was his design, "The Chair", that was used during the presidential debates between Nixon and Kennedy in 1960. Being one of the first awarded the Lunning Prize, he set forth the ideas that the prize was to represent.
One of his best quotes regarding design was, "Many foreigners have asked me how we made the Danish style. And I've answered that it...was rather a continuous process of purification, and for me of simplification, to cut down to the simplest possible elements of four legs, a seat and combined top rail and arm rest."
Tapio Wirkkala was born in 1915, and studied at the Institute of Industrial Arts in Helsinki from 1933- 36. He later worked for Iittala Glassworks from 1946 -85, Rosenthal from 1956-82, hackman from 1961-70, Venini from 1965-82, and Westerback from 1955-85. He was an Honorary Royal Designer of Industry for London, England in 1964, and awarded doctor honoris causa for the Royal College of Arts in 1971. He was also took prizes from the Milan Triennal in 1951, 1954, 1960, and 1963 amongst the many, many other awards he won during his incredibly prolific life.
Tapio Wirkala is primarily known for his works in glass, which he had started as early as 1946 with a competition sponsored by Iittala Glassworks for engraved glass models,and the very next year, won an award for Finland's competition for bank note design, which remained in circulation for many years. Most of his designs were naturally inspired: melting ice was a common theme, but also leaves and mushrooms. His designs for Iittala were revolutionary and called for new techniques and his most exemplary work for the company, his "Ultima Thule" (Most Northern) glasssware that took on the gorgeous look of dripping icicles. often his original designs were carved out using a traditional Finnish knife, later to be also be designed by Wirkkala and produced by Hackman Cutlery. Wirkkala worked continuously and in all manner of fields. With Rosethal he helped collaborate on a number of porcelain lines, he dabbled in jewelry, lamps, and even wooden sculpture. Even the mundane, like ketchup bottles and the Finlandia vodka bottle, were beautifully rendered by his artful hands. Of design he had once said, "All materials have their own unwritten laws... You should never be violent with a material you're working on, and the designer should aim at being in harmony with his material."
Carl-Axel Acking was born in 1910 and studied interior design at the National college of Art, Craft, and Design from 1930-34 before studying architecture at the Institute of Technology in Stockholm from 1934-39. From there he opened his own design studio in 1939 and was a designer for the Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society, Nordiska Kompaniet, Svenska Mobelfabrikerna, Bodafors, Hantverket and Johnson Line. He was the architect of several buildings including Siris Chapel in Torsby, Telhus in Ludvika with Sven Hesselgren and Birgitta Church. He also participated in the World Exhibitions in Paris in 1937 and in New York in 1939.
When Carl-Axel Acking won the Lunning Prize, it was later in his career when he headed the teaching staff for interior design of the National College of Art, Craft, and Design. In addition to his many contributions to Sweden's architecture, of which he also wrote many books, he worked extensively with plywoods and veneers as well as bent woods, creating a number of incredibly functionalist designs. His armchair design is unique in its construction: its manufacturing openly displayed all its hardware: a chair that was, simply what it was, its design purely an expression of its construction, purpose and materials. Much of this characterized his other designs for such things as telephone booths, hotel funishings, and even vending machines.
Grete Prytz-Kittelsen was born in 1917 and studied at the National College of Art and Design in Oslo from 1936-41. Grete worked in her family's firm, J. Tolstrup in Oslo from 1945 -84, and in the Milan Triennial she took the Grand Prix in 1954 and gold medals in 1957 and 1961. She then was on the World Crafts Council board from 1968 til 1983, and an honorary member in 1984, as well as the President of the Norwegian National Association of Arts and Crafts from 1975-78.
Grete Prytz Kittelsen benefited greatly from her family's involvement in the jewelry trade, as well as the international connections she had formed throughout her life. Her family's firm had been established in 1832, and produced a long line of goldsmiths, of which, Grete was trained to be part of the fifth generation of the family trade. It was while working under the family trade that she became exposed to enamelwork, an artform which she would would spend her life reinventing and pushing boundaries with. Most remarkably, she would revolutionize the engraving technique on the surfaces with which enamelwork was done. Previously, most enamellers would use the traditional guilloche technique which would only remove a thin layer of base metal, limiting the depth of color achieved. Instead Grete started by hand engraving using a cutter similar to a dentist drill which would allow greater precision as well as greater freedom in how she could cut the base metals upon which she would work, allowing for deeper cuts (and thus deeper colors) as well as unique textures beneath the surface. It was during the 1952 exhibition, "Light on the enamel art of Norway" held at the Oslo Museum of Applied Art that she made such a deep impression with her works, displaying a deep blue dish approximately 70 cm wide.
Many other pieces would follow, including many items of jewelry,(The "Domino" series of finger rings comes to mind) as well as a number of bowls, dishes, plates and utensils for Catherineholm, for which there is even today great interest amongst collectors of her various patterns, notably, "Lotus" with its cheerful colors and simple leaf like designs, and many of her enameled plates with their ghostly patterns of lines, and simple geometric shapes surfacing amidst a deep ocean of color. Even to this day, she continues to work in design and enamelwork, having started once again after returning from a trip to China in 2003.
Tias Eckhoff was born in 1926 and received his diploma from the National College of Applied Arts in Oslo in 1949. A fair portion of his earlier career was attached to Porsgrunds Porcelaensfabrik from 1949,where he became an art director from 1953-60, design advisor in 1960, and from 1974 a member of the board of directors. Also a consultative designer for Trio-Ving A/S, Georg Jensen silversmithy, Lundtofte Design, and Norsk Stalpress. He also won a number of gold medals, One during the Milan Triennial in 1954, and two in 1957. In 1953, he designed Cypress for Georg Jensen, coincidentally the same year he was awarded the Lunning Prize. In June of 2007, he was awarded the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav for his "excellent service to Country and mankind".
Tias Eckhoff belongs to that rare breed of designers whose incredible artistic sense develops early and whose abilities withstand the test of time. Although very well known for his immensely popular flatware sets, including Maya and Inca for Norsk Stalpress, and the exceptional aforementioned Cypress for Georg Jensen, Tias also designed a number of porcelain patterns for Porsgrunds, such as The Fluted One, with its delicate ridges on simplified forms. In fact, many of his designs were for everyday items, including stackable chairs of molded plastic, keys for Trio-Ving, and many others.
Even though he was trained as a ceramicist, his method for design is incredibly thorough and rational. Not just aesthetic beauty, and functional purpose, but research and development, production methods and price: all are considered within his designs. "The most important thing was to have a viable idea when you start on a new project, a vision. But there is no easy task - industrial design can be compared with a complicated crossword puzzle," he says. "There are many aspects to consider. Besides the actual design, one must also consider the material, rational production and price... When I have worked with smaller companies, I have always had had in mind that I as a designer also has responsibility for business and jobs."
Henning Koppel was born in 1918 and died in 1981. He studied at the sculptor's school of the Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1936-37 and the Acedemie Ranson in Paris from 1938 to 1939. During the Second World War he resided in Sweden working as a painter before returning to Denmark to design for Georg Jensen Silversmithy and then for Grondahls Porcelainfabrik since 1961. He won gold medals in the Milan Triennial in 1951, 1954, and 1957.
Henning Koppel possessed an incredible personality and a devotion to precision and mastery over the materials he worked with that can be seen in all his creations, large or small. His sculptural background, shows in his designs, with an incredibly organic plasticine almost fluid look which separates his works from the functionalist designers of his time. Most notable from his designs are his amoebic jewelry, as well as the flatware patterns, Caravel, produced as the first stainless steel set for Georg Jensen, New York, an incredibly popular set designed for the New York's World Fair, and Strata, the most successful set, with plastic plates which could withstand the dishwasher's wear and tear. His Form 24 series for Grondahls, ( to be part of Royal Copenhagen), pushed the limits of his medium once again, rendered beautifully in its pure white surfaces, making it a timeless classic, much like his works for Georg Jensen. His early death was a tragic loss for the world of design.
Born in 1921, Ingelborg Lundin studied at the National College of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm in 1941-46. From there she became a designer for Orrefors from 1947 - 71 as part of the third generation of designers for the company. In 1957 she took a gold medal at the Milan Triennial, and her first designs for the company countered the trend towards engravings, preferring the crisp sleekness of the unadorned clear glass, as seen in her hourglass shaped vases, and her most well known piece, the Apple vase. Afterwards, her pieces would sometimes feature cut decorations in geometric or abstract patterns, however the graceful shapes, ethereal feel, and the masterful simplicity of her art glass would earn her the title, "The Balenciaga of glass" and a symbol of Swedish art glass.
Jen H. Quistgaard was born in 1919, and at a very early age learned to carve and sculpt wood, and by 15 years of age, had begun working with iron. Having apprenticed under Just Andersen at the Georg Jensen silversmithy, it wasn't until he met Ted Nierenberg in 1954, the same year he took hom a number of gold and silver medals at the Milan Triennial, and using Jens Quistgaard's unique designs, founded Dansk International, being the primary designer for the firm. It was his incredible knowledge and understanding of the materials he would use as well as his simple yet refined designs which felt at home in virtually any household, that elevated Dansk to its international status today. His cheerfully colored and unique Kobenstyle enamel cookware and wooden stave, turned teak bowls overflow with warmth and beauty combined with high functionality and durability. Jen Quistgaard also designed a number of equally warm and inviting flatware patterns, including Fjord, a stainless steel set with teak handles, as well as his Flamestone ceramics with their unique texture in a charcoal grey surface.
Ingrid Dessau was born in 1923 and studied at the National College of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm from 1935-35, before working for the Hand Craft Society of Kristianstad County from 1945-49. Working as a freelance designer for hand knotted and tufted carpets since 1953, she also designed for Kastalls Mattfabrik from 1954-78, and Kinnasand AB from 1970-84.
By the early 1950's, Ingrid Dessau was one of the leading textile designers in Sweden. Her debut in at Gallerie Moderne in 1953 was a huge success, where soon after she was designing some of the best selling fabric designs for Kasthall, giving the company worldwide recognition. Many of her designs take inspiration from varied sources, from nature to citiscapes, such as was for her Manhattan line, a series of geometric squares and rectangles resembling the cityscape's night time lights. After a number of freelance designs, in 1991, Ingrid Dessau would design the table linens for the celebration of the 90th year of the prestigious Nobel Prize. "Nobel", a gorgeous set of linens durable enough for everyday use, drew inspiration for a beautiful checked pattern woven at Dylta Mill.
Kaj Franck was born in 1911 and studied at the Central School of Industrial Arts in the department of furniture in Helsinki from 1929-32 before becoming a designer for lighting fixtures and textiles from 1933-45 before working as a designer for Wartsila-Arabia (later to be Iittala Group) from 1945-73, and artistic director from 1968-73. He was also artistic director and teacher of the Institute of Industrial Arts in Helsinki from 1960-68, and Professor h.c. 1973. He also took a Grand Prix in the 1957 Milan Triennial.
Although even Kaj Franck admits to being a mediocre student whose ability to draw was his saving grace during his earliest years, it wasn't until he met Kurt Eckholm in 1945, the artistic director for Arabia, whom was looking for someone to bring a fresh functionalist line to the company, which until then was known mostly for its more ornamental ceramics, that he really began to shine. Functionalism had flourished in Finland as early as the 1930's, and it was Franck, whom drew inspiration from such people as French cubist Braque, that reinvented the line, with his "Kilta" tableware, which he is perhaps most well known for. His overall design principle was that all ornamentation be removed. A good design had to be functional, easy to use and clean, durable, and fitting to the materials it used. He developed a number of stunning glass works, developing new and rediscovering old techniques in the development of art glass. More than traditional glass blowing, the manufacturing of glass through automatic press inspired him, and gave him the freedom to experiment. In 1947 he shared first prize in an Iittala competition with other Lunning Prize winner, Tapio Wirkkala. Later on he would design the "Kartio" series of pressed glass jugs and glasses for Iittala, and in 1977 his "Teema" design would consist of 19 pieces, all focusing on the most basic geometric shapes: the circle, the square, and the cone. It was also during his later period, in 1979, that he would design an entire service in plastic for Sarvis Oy, demonstrating the democratic and social ideologies of the functionalist movement.
In 1992, the Design Forum of Finland established the Kaj Franck Award to be given each year to the designer whose work best embodied the spirit of Kaj Franck.
"An object must survive upon its own conditions instead of the designer's name, and design is an important part of those conditions."
Nanna was born in 1923, two years after her husband, Jorgen. Jorgen Ditzel had competed his apprenticeship as a furniture upholsterer in 1939 and attended the same School of Arts, Crafts, and Design in Copenhagen as his wife, where he graduated in 1944, two years before his wife. Both had owned a studio together since 1946, and won Silver Medals in 1951, 1954 and 1957, and finally culminating in a gold medal in 1960 in the Milan Triennial of each respective year.
Nanna and Jorgen Ditzel's venture into freelance design work was a bit unusual for its time in Denmark. Both had trained in furniture making, and as a result their earlier years were spent designing a number of chairs and other related pieces. In 1950, they won first prize in a competition by the Cabinetmaker's Guild with a unique chair, described as "a basket to sit in", which hung suspended from the ceiling and had a solid wooden framework from which it was constructed. Much of Nanna Ditzel's furniture designs were in a similar design vein: taking inspiration from unexpected sources and combining in with traditional craftsmanship to created truly beautiful works of art. Furniture wasn't the only thing the Ditzel's designed. From textiles, including a stunning line of viscose and wool fabrics in pastel color, as well as carpets, wallpapers, glass, ceramics, cookware,and of course, her jewelry for Georg Jensen. Many of her jewelry pieces would become classics, including her bracelet and necklace designs, No. 111 in 1955, with its gorgeous sculptural geometric design with polished surfaces, taking its inspiration for Iron Age jewelry, yet wholly modern in its final design. Although her husband, Jorgen Ditzel had died early at only 40 years old, Nanna Ditzel was more than able to continue with her design work, winning numerous awards for her design work, well into the late 90's and on.
Timo Sarpaneva was born in 1926, and studied at the Graphic Arts Department of the Central School of Applied Arts in Helsinki from 1941-48. Afterward, he was an independent artist for and the head of the exhibition section at the Karhula-Iittala glassworks since 1950, as well as teacher at the College of Applied Arts where he graduated since the the mid 50's. He gained a number of honorary titles, incuding Royal Designer for Industry from the Royal Society of the Arts in London in 1963, Doctor h.c. Of the Royal College of Arts in London in 1967, Professor h.c. Acedemico de Honor Extranjero, Academia de Diseno, University of Mexico City in 1985, and Honorary Doctor, University of Design in Helsinki in 1993. He also took silver medals in the Milan Triennials of 1951, 1957, and 1960, as well as Grand Prix in 1951 and 1957.
Timo Sarpaneva's designed in a number of materials, including ceramics, cast iron (including a pot whose wooden carrying "handle" doubled as bar for removing the hot lid), stainless steel, silver, paintings, and most notably, glass. Many of his glass works would evolve around the methods of production he would also invent, such as when he created his glass sculptures kayak, in 1953, or vase of Orchids in 1954 utilizing his steam blowing technique. He also created the well known i-line for Iittala, which was a huge combinative line, with over 200 different combinations of item, size, and color, and which broke a number of established ideas regarding the mechanical manufactury of decorative as well as utility glass at the time. His ability to capture light, as well as color are renowned, often compared to looking through ice beneath the sea. He also is responsible for the iconic Iittala logo, which is also one of his designs. His other works include the Suomi line for Rosenthal, an unusual rounded square line of dinner plates, which was made part of the permanent collection of the Centre Pompidou in Paris for its incredible contemporary design.
Hermann Bongard was born in 1921, and was educated at the National College of Applied Art in Oslo from1938-41, before being attached to the Christiania Glasmagasin/Hadelands Glassverk as a designer from 1947-55. He then became an advisor to Figgio Fajanse from 1957-63, and art director at Plus-Workshops in Fredrikstad from 1960-64. Later, he was chief design advisor to J.W. Cappelens publishing firm from 1966-68, and from 1971, senior teacher at the graphic design department of the National College of Applied Art. He took gold and silver medals at the Milan Triennial in 1954.
Hermann Bongard started out as a glassworker and engraver for Christiania, where he later developed a number of art glass pieces, as well as a few series of drinking glasses, such as Hermann, Ambassador, Liqueur and Tullik. Hermann was an incredibly versatile designer, however, and it was at Figgio Fajansefabrik that he would design a number of fireproof dishes and tableware, a beautiful supple form to the materials used.
Erik Hoglund was born in 1932 and studied at the National College of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm from 1948-53, and designed for Boda Bruks AB from 1953 until 1973, and from then on as a sculptor in Stockholm, working with bronze, wood, and stone.
By the 1950's, the world of Scandinavian glass was taking on a set look with specific characteristics of its own, primarily as being clean cut and refined, with the thinnest of glass and slender designs. Erik Hoglund was an artist in the field of glassworks whose designs went against this view, creating thick earthy designs with bubbles throughout, considered an imperfection in the works of many of his contemporaries' pieces. Many pieces were also engraved or pressed with gorgeous motifs appearing as though they were inspired by ancient cultures, or from animals in nature, and the human form, and the colors he would use, deep tobacco browns, and deep ambers, as well as deep greens and blues as well as a number of other fantastic colors. Other materials would capture his attention and soon he moved on to his more sculptural works, and in particular, a lot of his work in the 1980's consisted of a yellow type of brick, which lent itself to sculpting before firing.
Poul Kjaerholm was born in 1929 and finished his apprenticeship as a joiner in 1948. He then studied at the School of Arts, Crafts, and Design in copenhagen, and graduated in 1952, before studying at the furniture school of the royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1953-59. He then designed for E. Kold Christensen in Copenhagen. He also spent a number of years teaching, at the School of Arts, Crafts, and Design from 1952-55, at the royal Academy in 1955, and lecturer in 1959 as well as professor in 1976. He also won the Grand Prix in 1957 and a gold medal in 1960 at the Milan Triennials of the respective years. Poul Kjaerholm's career was unfortunately cut short with his death in 1980, but not without already leaving his mark upon the world of Danish furniture.
Poul Kjaerholm's furniture, typically considered "Classical Modern" had pulled from functionalist ideals at the time with influences from Bauhaus, and uses natural materials as an aesthetic source of warmth to otherwise colder designs and contrasting materials of chrome plated steel. The PK22 chair, to which is accredited to his award of the Lunning Prize, has a simple chromed metal base with a weaved cane seat and back wrapped in leather with straight lines and beautiful proportions. Another notable design was the PK 61 table whose graceful legs protrude outward overextending from its base, creating the illusion of being suspended midair. Many of his pieces are part of the permanent collection in the Museum of Modern Art in New York, as well as the V&A Museum in London. One of his last designs was a beautiful woven folding chair in maple for the concert hall in Louisiana.
Signe Persson-Melin was born in 1925 and studied atr the National College of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm 1945-46, and 1948-50 and in between at the School of Aarts, Crafts, and Design in Copenhagen from 1947-48. She owned her own studio in Malmo from 1951-66, and designed for Kosta Boda AB from 1967-77, as well as a designer at Boda Nova since 1979. Since 1980 she has designed for Rorstrand, and was appointed her first professorship at the National College of Art, Craft and Design in Stockholm in 1985.
Signe Persson-Melin has specialized in pottery for over 50 years, and although her designs have been brought to llife in glass and other materials, it is stoneware that she is most well known for. During her breakout success at the H55 exhibition, she debuted with a series of spice jars with a rustic appearance, yet strong forms. The contents labeled clearly in bold lettering and unglazed exposed clay. Many later pieces would carry similar elements: unadorned geometric forms, the exposed natural earthiness of the clay accentuating various pieces, and in a number of cases, beautifully textured pattern surfaces. The forms in particular lend a strong functionalist element to the design, and yet somehow lend a sense of traditional beauty, even in her glass forms.
Of her designs, she says, "My work is simple - not trendy. Classic but still right for the times." Biography Coming Soon
Arne Jon Jutrem
Arne Jon Jutrem was born in 1929 and studied at the National College of Art and Design in Oslo from 1946-50, and was a pupil of Fernand Leger in 1952, and spent several periods of time studying in Paris from 1968-72. He was a designer at Hadeland Glassworks from 1950-62 and took part in the foundation of the Norwegian Association of Arts and Crafts in 1963, as well as chairman of the association from 1963-66. He also was a member of the board of the National College of Art and Design from 1965-67 and chairman of the board from 1967-70. He was also member of the board of the Norwegian Design Centre from 1964-71 and held the position of Read of Aesthetics at the National Teacher Training College in Oslo. Arne Jon Jutrem had taken a gold medal at the Milan Triennial of 1954.
Arne Jon Jutrem was one of the first Norwegian designers working in electronics, and had designed a number of items such as refrigerators, electric heaters and cookers for National Industri. He also worked in a number of other mass produced designs during this time, including furniture wall paper and textiles as well as postage stamps, books, posters and other materials. It was really in glassworks, however, that he made his greatest impression. During his time at Hadeland Glassworks that he designed a number of glassware sets for mass production as well as a number of stunning examples of art glass, where his depth of color and emphasis on form truly shined, displaying a number of pieces of glass, along side a furniture set in steel and glass at the Montreal World Exhibition. Afterwards, he then started to focus on painting however also designed a number of larger pieces during this time.
Antii Nurmesniemi was born in 1927, and after being educated at the College of Applied Arts in Helsinki, he graduated as an interior designer in 1950. From there hew worked with architect Viljo Rewell from 1951-56, and Giovanni Romano from 1954-55 in Milan. He owned his own freelance studio from 1956, and was a member of the European Council of Science, Art, and Culture in 1982. He took silver medals in both 1957 and 1964 as well as Grand Prix in 1960 as well as 1964 in the Milan Triennials of the respective years.
Antii Nurmesniemi's work was prolific, and worked hard towards promoting Finnish design internationally. Designing a number of objects, from his Antii Telephone with Fujitsu Ltd. In Japan with its ultra slim flat design and sensuously arched handset, to a number of enamelware pieces for Wartsila in deep colors with simplified shapes, as well as a number of larger projects including the underground cars for the city of Helsinki with Borje Rajalin.
Torun Bulow Hube was born in 1927 and studied at the National College of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm and owned her own studio there shortly after from 1951-56. Afterwards Torun moved to Paris and Biot in France where she lived and worked from 1956-68. During that time she had also opened a studio of her own again from 1958 onwards till she moved once again and opened her studios in Wolfburg and Wendhausen, West Germany from 1968-78. She later moved to Indonesia in 1978 and opened a studio there in 1979. Torun had been a freelance designer for the Georg Jensen Silversmithy since 1967, and won a gold medal at the Milan Triennial of 1960.
Torun was one of the few women to gain international renown as a designer, and one of the first internationally recognized female silversmiths. Some of her first designs were a series of necklaces made from wire and rattan, as though an homage to the necklaces of the tribes of Africa. Many of her designs had a simple fluidity to them, working within a singular plane, a single piece of silver artfully manipulated into an almost sculptural but wholly organic shape. Torun spent a number of years working within certain shapes, including a number of pieces based on the Mobius strip, a geometric shape with a single side, or with a twisted loop, the symbol representing infinity, and various later pieces based on the spiral. Torun drew much inspiration from nature and its natural forms, and her famous mobile necklaces were inspired from the pebbles she collected on a walk along the beach of the Mediterranean Sea. During an exhibition at the Louvre, whose theme revolved around "Objects you Hate", she designed her bangle watch, which has no numerals, and a mirrored face, with the most beautiful minimalist design. It was this watch that was one of the first wristwatches ever to be put into production, and is perhaps one of their most recognized watch designs.
Click HERE to read more about Torun
Vibeke Klint was born in 1927 and attended the Weaving Class of in the workshop of Gerda Henning at the School of Arts, Crafts, and Design from 1949-50, and studied at Aubusson with Jean Lurcat at St Cere, as well as with Pierre Wemaere in Brittany in 1951. Afterwards, she owned her own workshop, succeeding her teacher, Gerda Henning, completing a number of textile commissions. She designed carpets for A/S C. Oleson and other design projects for production since 1956.
Weaving textiles is different from many other artistic endeavors of design, in that often the quality and craftsmanship present is of greater importance than artistic free will. Vibeke Klint had trained under one of the foremost Danish weavers of the generation preceding her, Gerda Henning, and with a mastery of the art gained relatively early, Vibeke continued to produce textiles of the highest quality through the traditional methods at a time when experimentation was the norm. With only a few patterns and with great inspiration from weavers in other countries, she would continue to impress with the timelessness of her works. Bold in color, yet restrained and with simplicity in design characterized many of her designs. She also did a number of tapestries, including her most well known, The Good Samaritan, signed by Palle Nielsen and hung in Frederica Hall.
Bertel Gardberg was born in 1916 and was educated at the Goldsmith's School from 1938-41 and the Central School for Applied Arts in Helsinki where he owned his own workshop since 1949. He was artistic director of the Kilkenny Design Workshop in Ireland from 1966-68 and head of design as well as technical director of Rionor in Kilkenny from 1968-71. Afterward, he taught in Finland since 1971, and had many commissions as a designer in Denmark, France, and the United States as both craftsman and designer. He was a member of the Academy of Finland in 1982, and won gold medals in 1954 as well as 1957 and silver medals in 1960 for the Milan Triennials of the respective years.
Bertel Gardberg designed in many materials, including silver, steel, wood, and stone. He is perhaps most well known for his flatware patterns including Triennale, which was made in 1957, with graceful lines and contrasting wood handles. Also made that year was Carelia for Hackman, another exceptional design in stainless steel with simple, gracefully tapering handles. Also for Hackman, he designed cooking pans, including Canton, a gorgeous design with wooden handles, a contrast beautiful juxtaposition also found in a mocha service in silver from his own studio. Bertel Gardberg also design a number of jewelry pieces for Georg Jensen in sterling silver. More than a designer, Bertel could be considered a craftsman, giving special meaning to the way he worked with his hands to form his works of beauty.
"It is not just the brain that thinks, as every craftsman knows. The hands think too, when they work with various materials. The hands transmit information to the brain. And between the hands and the brain lies the human heart, and love for the work. You have to respect the qualities of the material. And you do that by building things with your own hands. Then the construction and the dimensions come out right."
Erik Ploen was born in 1925 and trained as a ceramist at Schneider and Knudsen's pottery in Oslo from 1941-44 and from there owned his own workshop in 1946 where he began his stoneware production in 1957. He was also a guest professor at the University of Chicago from 1963-64.
Erik Ploen never received any formal education on his art, but instead learned through his experience as an apprentice. From early on his stoneware took on a dense, thick walled style with rich natural glazes and geometric design. Often his designs took inspiration from the natural world, and is reflected in his glazing, often further taking inspiration from stones. During his time at The University of Chicago, he installed a gas fired kiln, which allowed for reduction firing, a method that allowed for baking ceramics with a reduced influx of oxygen, allowing for different glazes to be used. This was a new technique in the world of Scandinavian ceramics, and the pieces by Erik Ploen of the time show his experimentation with these new colors, including fantastic oxblood reds, grey-blues and blue-blacks.
Hertha Hillfon was born in 1921 and studied at the National College of Art, Craft and Design in Stockholm from 1953-57. Afterward she owned her own studio in Stockholm since 1959, and was a member of the Swedish Academy of Fine Arts since 1971.
Hertha Hillfon primarily creates her sculptures in ceramics, breathing life into their forms with beautiful glazes and was one of the first free sculptors in Sweden. Although a number of her works exist in other mediums, such as bronze, as with her "Frida the Rabbit" a beautifully rendered figure seated upon a large rabbit, invoking a slightly asiatic feel, her primary medium has been clay with free flowing glazes, and abstract shapes, as well as human figures and monumental masks. A number of her ceramic pieces have also been functional, and are displayed in her studio, with freshly baked bread, or fresh apples.
Kristian Vedel was born in 1923 and completed his apprenticeship as a cabinetmaker in 1942. He then was educated at the School of Architecture of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts as well as the Furniture Design Department of the School of Arts, Crafts, and Design in Copenhagen in 1946, where he then lectured from 1953-56. From 1969-72 he organized and led the Department of Industrial Design of the University of Nairobi, Kenya. Since 1961 he has owned his own design studio with Ane Vedel and was chairman of the Industrial Designers of Denmark. From 1966-68. He took a silver medal in the 1957 Milan Triennial and gold in 1960.
Kristian Vedel's did much to encourage the world of industrial design at home as well as abroad, promoting he ideals of the betterment of society through design. In an interview he is quoted as say, "The starting point for an industrial artist's work must always be that he, from his own point of view, and as objectively as possible, takes a position with regard to what he feels society and his fellow men need; he must personally take a stand on the existing possibilities and responsibilities." It was due to this effort that he was awarded the Lunning Prize of 1962, and was demonstrated through his efforts in the IDD and in founding the first department of industrial design in Africa, as a place for research and development.
Kristian Vedel's designs were as innovative and as forward thinking as his educational works. He designed many pieces of furniture, including a series of module multipurpose forms, including a series of simple tray tables, as well as a line of children's furniture made of bent plywood with sectional plywood inserts, which could easily be arranged and rearranged into a table, a stool, a set of shelves, or other highly functional and fun pieces. Also recently re-released are his family of birds, a highly expressive design and coming in four different sizes, made of carved oak, they are making a second debut after their immense popularity during the 1950's.
Karin Bjorquist was born in 1927 and studied at the national College of Art, Craft and Design in Stockhold from 1945 to 1950. From 1950 onwards she was an assistant to Wilhelm Kage at Gustavsberg since 1950, and artistic director since 1980. She also won a gold medal at the 1954 Milan Triennial.
Karin Bjorquist, a Swedish ceramicist, designed a number of table settings for Gustavsberg, including Cobalt, a series with simple lines and a gorgeous deep blue glaze, as well as other works such as the Nobel series, also designed for the ninetieth anniversary of the Nobel Prize, a collaboration with textile designs by Ingrid Dessau and cutlery by Gunnar Cyren, also Lunning Prize winners. Her series of pots in stoneware, "Marmite", was successful, with its deep brownish black glaze and exposed contrasting edges and thick walls, almost complimentary to her "Everyday" line in vitreous china, and glazed in green with a white edging.
Borje Rajalin was born in 1933 and studied at the Institute of Industrial Arts in the department of metal design in Helsinki in 1955. He worked in the workshop of another Lunning Prize Winner, Bertel Gardberg, and designed for Oy Tillander from 1952-56. Afterward, he owned his own design studio since 1956, as well as designing for Kalevala Koru. He was a teacher at the Institute of Industrial arts in the department of Design, as well as director of the Trade School of Industrial Design in Helsinki from 1969-71. During the 1960 Milan Triennial, he won a gold medal.
Applying himself to a number of projects, including the underground train cars with Antii Nurmesniemi, he is probably most well known for his work with Kalevala Koru, redesigning their silver line. Having trained as a silversmith under Bertel Gardberg, he had developed a similar respect for the craftsmanship demanded by his materials, and his designs are stunning in their simplicity. Utilizing sterling silver and Finnish gold, he accentuates the semiprecious stones he uses in his works with designs of simplicity: either a band or a simple geometric design. His jewelry has always been created with enhancing the wearer's beauty, rather than draw attention to the jewelry itself.
Vuokko Eskolin-Nurmesniemi was born in 1930 and studied at the Institute of Industrial Arts in the ceramics department in Helsinki from 1948-52, and then worked as a designer for Wartsila-Arabia from 1952-53 followed by Printex-Marimeko from 1953-60, and Wartsila-Nuutajarvi Glass from 1956-57. From 1960-62 she produced her own printed and woven fabrics as well as rugs, and was a teacher of composition at the Institute of Industrial Arts in Helsinki from 1964-65. She established her own textile business, Vuokko Oy in 1964. She won a gold medal in the 1957 Milan Triennial, and shared the grand Prix in 1964. She is married to fellow Lunning Prize winner, Antii Nurmesniemi.
Although trained as a ceramicist, Vuokko Eskolin-Nurmesniemi did very little in ceramics and glass. Instead she is most well known for her clothing designs buring the 1950's. In many ways her designs pushed forward new manufacturing techniques and fabric designs for Printex and Marimekko are revolutionary. Hand printed fabric was incredibly new for the time, and it was in fact the use of layering stencils, utilizing one color, then reversing the stencil and using a second color, with the overlap producing a third, that would become Marimekko's trademark technique. Many of her fabric designs would utiilize bold stripes or geometric patterns, and would inspire many for years to come.
Bent Gabrielsen was born in 1928 and finished his apprenticeship as a goldsmith in 1949 with Ejler Fangel in Copenhagen, and then continued on to study at the danish College of Jewelry, Silversmithing, and Professional Trade Design in Copenhagen from 1950-53. Afterward, he became a designer for Hans Hansen Silversmithy, A/S from 1953-69, and has owned his own workshop since then. During the Milan Triennial of 1962, he won a gold medal. A number of his designs have been manufactured for Georg Jensen as well.
Bent Gabrielsen quickly rose through the ranks at Hans Hansen and became head of the jewelry department and oversaw production, and it was without a doubt due to his spectacular and innovative designs rendered in both gold and silver. A number of his designs seem almost naturally inspired by his serene surroundings, such as his "Pod" necklace, produced by Georg Jensen, with its many links, each resembling a sycamore pod, draping gently around the wearer's neck.
Eli-Marie Johnsen was born in 1926 and studied at the National College of Art and Design during the evening classes in Oslo and the national College of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm from 1947-51. Afterward, she did a study tour to Mexico and Guatamala in 1967 followed by a number of study tours throughout Europe. She was also a teacher and later lecturer of Arts and Crafts at the State High School of Art and Handicraft in Oslo from 1953-84.
Primarily educated as a painter and in textile crafts, Eli-Marie Johnsen became most well known for her tapestries, embroideries, appliques, and other textile works, creating innovative pieces that broke with Norwegian traditions and utilizing a wide variety of materials and unique designs. Often utilizing both abstract and concrete symbolism, her works often seemed inspired by either nature or personal connections to her and her life, and were reflected in her choice of materials. One of her greatest assignments was for the decoration of the Stavanger Lirary, of which four tapestries were done, "The Milky Way, The Pleiades, The Sun, and The Earth, double woven and made with such fine materials as silk, linen, gold, and silver. Another series for the Norwegian Watercourse and Electricity Board included another four tapestry series with the natural theme, Fire, Water, Air/Earth, and Cultivated land, reminding viewers to appreciate nature and respect life itself.
Hans Krondahl was born in 1929 and studied at the national College of Art, Craft, and Design as well as the Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm. He later became an industrial designer for Nordiska Kompaniet, Boras Wafweri AB, The Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society, and Katja of Sweden/MMT. During 1975-77 he was design director at Argos Design in Chicago, and from 1979-80 UNIDO expert in textile design and product development in Indonesia. He was also a lecturer of many colleges in the United States as well as senior lecturer at the National College of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm, the School of Applied Art in Oslo, and the School of Industrial Design at Gothenburg University since 1981.
Hans Krondahl originally started out studying to be a painter, however quickly changed the direction of his study to the textile artist, where he soon gained much acclaim. His designs often started out as a series of sketches which he would combine to create collage like works, or through use of positive and negatives of the forms to create his patterns. During his 1964 trip to Japan, he gained much inspiration, which can even be seen through the names of his designs, such as Ginza, Kyoto, and Kabuki. Utilizing bold colors and expressive abstract lines, his works were often made a dramatic statement. His years of teaching often gave him as much inspiration as he had instructed.
Gunnar Cyren was born in 1931 and studied at the National Ocllege of Art, Craft, and Design in Stockholm. In 1951 he received his apprentice's diploma as a goldsmith, and again in 1956 as a silversmith. He studied at Kolner Werkschule in West Germany in 1954 and designed for Orrefors from 1959-70 before doing freelance work for them in 1976. He has been a freelance designer for Dansk Design Ltd. Since 1970, and owned his own silversmith studio in Gavle since 1975.
During a time when the main trend in Sweden was to create more rustic works with a personal investment in the design by the artist, Gunnar Cyren countered with a more refined and perfected art, with his glassworks, which were more restrained and refined in their simplicity. Nothing was added that did not need be added, nor was anything unfinished. As time would go on he would create more modernist designs within his glassworks, often using bright vibrant colors such as in the Pop glassware from Orrefors, with its banded stems in multicolored banded glass. Later on he would do many designs for Dansk, including a number of plastic trays and glassware in bright cheerful colors. He also went on to design a number of teak pieces as well as candleholders and other items in silverplate. He also designed the cutlery for ninetieth anniversary of the Nobel Prize, a series with matte handles contrasting with the spoon bowls, fork tines, and knife blades mirror finish.
Yrjo Kukkapuro was born in 1933 and was educated aqt the Institute of Industrial Arts in Helsinki where he graduated as an interior designer in 1958. From 1959 he has owned his own studio, and he had designed a number of exhibitions inculding the Finnish stand at the Milan Triennial in 1968, ARS-69, Russian Art from the Hermitage collection in 1972 and Egyptian Art in 1973 for the Ateneum Art Museum in Helsinki. He also was a designer for Marimekko, working in a number of public spaces.
Yrjo Kukkapuro may have done quite a bit as an interior designer, as per his training, but it is his work as a furniture designer where he made his mark upon the world. Based off the human form, he built chairs and sofas of great comfort whilst adhering to a form of minimalism that reduces his designs to a series of beautiful and graceful lines, and unique forms, and often utilizing chrome plated steel tubes and sometimes plywood where often nothing is wasted. One of his earlier designs, the Carousel chair, is perhaps his greatest source of fame: a seat formed from fiberglass and leather whose supple shape cradles the seated body mounted on an ingenius simple leg support system that was one of the first to allow for both side to side motion as well as leaning back and forward. Even recently, Kukkapuro is creating new and innovative designs. During the 90's emphasis was starting to be placed on creating ecologically sound furniture, to which he has done much to promote. Along with aesthetics and ergonomics, ecology is seen as being one of the three key elements to the field of design, as the desire for reliability, comfort and durability he states all pertain to ecology. In 2004, as a design expert for UNESCO as part of a project utilizing bamboo as a building material, as bamboo laminate is a recyclable ecologically friendly wood alternative, developed a number of furniture designs for the Chinese domestic market.
Erik Magnussen was born in 1940 and studied at the School of Arts, Crafts, and Design in Copenhagen where he graduated in 1960. He then went on to do design work for a number of companies, including Bing and Grondahl Porcelaensfabrik since 1962, Stelton A/s since 1976 and Georg Jensen since 1978.
Erik Magnussen's designs have been very diverse, ranging from working with silver in the form of jewelry, as he did with the Domino series of cufflinks for Georg Jensen, to his works as a ceramicist with Bing and Grondahl on his amazing teapots, including a particular porcelain model with sleek clean lines and double wall with a cutout slot, acting as the traditional handle. The same clean lines and unusual spout are also seen in his work with Stelton nearly ten years later with his thermos carafe with its unusual self opening/closing lid. He has also worked with furniture, one of his first designed being the beautifully formed steel and canvas Z-chair, and later the Magnum and Chairik chairs by Engelbrecht, with their planar design coated in a durable melamine, and with their stacking capabilities have made them popular in many settings including schools and other public spaces.
Kristi Skintveit was born in 1942 and was educated at the Bergen Industrial School for Women from 1959-61, and then the National Industrial College for Women. She was a trainee at the Norwegian Tapesty Weaving Ltd. In Oslo in 1962 and with Eli Marie Johnsen, also a Lunning Prize winner in 1965, in 1963. She set up her own workshop, Kristi AneVev and attached it to the Plus Crafts Centre in Fredrikstad in 1964 with other employed weavers and trainees. She then designed for the United Wool Factories in Algard from 1971-76 with afterward she reestablished her workshop.
Kristi Skintveit worked within the textiles industry and was one of the last designers to bridge the growing divide in Norway between craftsman whom were working towards personalized handcrafts, and designers working towards more mass industry geared designs. After her training, she had opened her own workshop and did much to promote collaboration amongst individual artists, and has worked much on her own, and yet has acted as a designer of furniture textiles as well as clothing. Most notably, she is known for her geometrically double woven wool fabrics in cheerful colors, typical of 60's fashion. She still works on her own out of her studio, KristiAneVev.
Bjorn Weckstrom was born in 1935 and studied at the Goldsmith School in Helsinki and graduated in 1956, which afterward, he owned his own workshop from 1956-63. From 1963 he designed for Lapponia Jewelry as well as working as a sculptor since 1981.
From an early age, Bjorn Weckstrom had shown an interest in sculptural arts, and, like many Scandinavian artists of the time, was inspired by various myths, however Bjorn, unlike others took his inspiration from Greek rather than Nordic sources. Ikaros, Nike, and Prometheus are all prime examples of this, as well as the repeated use of the human form, often cast in strong angular form with polished surfaces, with a cast molten feel, often having natural "cracks" and roughed organic surfaces strategically exposed giving the metallic material the overall earthy feel and texture of marble or other stones. This same technique of rendering metal sculpturally whilst still keeping its organic form, along with the strong angular lines are present in many of his jewelry designs for Lapponia, where he did much of his jewelry work, starting with his notable series, "Space Silver".
Ann & Goran Warff
Goran Warff was born in 1933 and studied architecture and design in Brunswich and Ulm, West Germany and Stockholm, and designed for Pukeburg Glasshouse from 1959-64 before designing for Kosta-Boda from 1964-74. He was also a visiting lecturer at New South Wales University in Australia in 1977 and lecturer in glass and ceramics at the Sunderland Polytechnic in England from 1981-85.
Ann Warff, also known as Ann Wolff, was born in 1937 in Lubeck West Germany and studied at the Hochschule fur Gestaltung in Ulm, West Germany from 1956-59 before also working in design for Pukeburg Glasshouse from 1960-64 and then for Kosta-Boda from 1964-78 which after, she opened her own studio in 1978. She's been visiting lecturer in Europe the United States, and in Japan over the years, and in particular, visiting lecturer at the Pilchuck School of Glass in the U.S. In 1977, 1979, and 1984.
It was in during the summer of 1965 that Ann and Goran Warff started to show their new glass, using a thin overlay of black-blue glass and engraved. Acting as a team, Ann would often do the graphical design for each piece whilst Goran would design the forms. Even their approach to their medium, though different complimented each other. Goran's fascination with glass's effect on light, and Ann with glass as a surface for her images. This collaboration was essential to their works during the mid 60's to early 70's, however it unfortunately wasn't meant to last. During the early 70's they each went their separate artistic way, Goran traveling frequently and Ann setting up her own studio to develop her art glass further.
Helga & Bent Exner
Helga Exner was born in 1939 in Gablonz, Czechoslovakia and completed her apprenticeship as a goldsmith in 1960 in Bad Godesberg Germany and then set up a workshop in Norther Jutland with Bent Exner from 1961 -83 as for which, afterward she taught at Rudolph Steiner School in Arhus.
Bent Exner was born in 1932 and completed his apprenticeship as a goldsmith with Silver Medal in 1954 and after several years of studying theology, opened his own workshop with Helga in 1961. He also was a member of the Curriculum committee of the Goldsmiths Academy in Copenhagen since 1969 and was guest lecturer in 1969, 1970, and 1972.
Bent Exner had designed a number of unique sculptural jewelry pieces ans well as a number of other Christian art pieces. His designs were unique and incredibly sculptural with a mobile-like or armature based style. With the rings he designed, the resemblance to organic structures like tree branches was present, each ending with a small gemstone, and sometimes fractal in its nature. Uncompromising in his work, he pushed the limits of the decorative arts.
Borge Lindau & Bo Lindekrantz
Borge Lindau and Bo Lindekrantz were both born in 1932 and studied together at the Gothenburg School of Arts and Crafts from 1957-62. They then worked in their own office in Helsingborg doing interior design and as furniture designers since 1964. They also worked as designers for Lammhults Mekaniska AB since 1965.
Bo and Borge had met during their study at the Gothenburg School of Arts and Crafts, where they were older than the rest of their class, and quickly started their collaborative works together upon graduating, starting with the Opal, a stackable chair made of blockboard, with its simple graceful curves. Also designed was the S-70-1 stackable barstool made of chrome plated steel tubing and with a plastic seat, all formed from a singular tube bent into unique Z-shaped legs, creating an airy floating quality to the seat. Many of their designs found great success for both themselves and Lammhults. One of their more well known series is the Joker set of nursery furnishings.
Kim Naver was born in 1940 and completed her apprenticeship in weaving with Lis Ahlmann and another Lunning Prize winner, Vibeke Klint in 1966, and then opened her own independent workshop the same year. One of her major commissions included five tapestries for the reception hall of the National Bank of Denmark in Copenhagen, which was completed between 1978-79. She has also done a number of designed for A/S C. Olesen, Georg Jensen Damask Weaving Co. and others. She also was a member of the Steering Committee of the School of Arts,Crafts, and Design in Copenhagen in 1978 as well as Chairman of the Decorative Arts Council in 1982. She also has designed a number of jewelry pieces for the Georg Jensen Silversmithy.
Kim Naver was the youngest of all designers to win the Lunning Prize and had done so only four years after finishing her apprenticeship., and whose abilities and skills allowed her to carry on the traditions of her teachers designing the best in household textiles as well as shown in her larger projects as well, Her beautiful patterns in checks and stripes with virtually no ornamentation, working purely with the material and the formation of the pattern itself. Another unique characteristic of Kim Naver's textile designs is the nature of which she has produced them upon her loom, and yet seemlessly they transition to work on larger machines with virtually no loss of quality, an ability that lent itself extremely well to mass production. Kim Naver had also designed a number of jewelry pieces in sterling silver for Georg Jensen, including a set of mirrored puffed hexagonal cufflinks, and a ring with a simple half twist at each side, elegantly accenting the band.
Oiva Toikka was born in 1931 and studied at the Institute for Industrial Arts in the ceramics department from 1953-56 and in the department of art education from 1956-60. He worked as a designer for Wartsila-Arabia from 1956-59 and for Marimekko in 1959. He was also a teacher at the Institute of Industrial Arts from 1960-61 and at Sodankyla Secondary High School from 1961-63. Since 1963 he had been artistic director and designer at Nuutajarvi Glass and worked on costume and scenery designs for the Tampere and Savonlinna Theaters and Opera Houses since the 1960's.
Although trained as a ceramicist, Oiva Toikka primarily made his name working with glass, which he had developed a unique perspective and ethic towards. Rather than intense planning and drawn out specifications, Oiva prefers a more free design, building up to a final product at a natural pace, viewing each mistake as an opportunity, creating each piece in an organically playful way. Oiva Toikka's designs often feature a fantastic vibrancy and use of color, as well as reduced designs which allow for easier use of his designs within a factory setting, where overdecoration prevents mass production. His trip sponsored through the Lunning Prize to Africa and South America where he gain an appreciation for more ancient cultures and a respect for the beauty in nature, which can be seen in his wonderfully designed glass birds for Iittala, of which a new design is produces annually.